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Buying a Shortwave Radio

1. Cost: Hobbies can get as expensive as we let them. Shortwave radio listening is not as popular in the United States as it is in many other parts of the world. In all honesty, at times the prices of shortwave receiver sets in the United States can seem a little steep for what you are actually buying. This might be due at least in part to the fact that a good portion of amateur and shortwave radio dealers in the United States tend to rely on government purchases for revenue. Even so, choosing a good shortwave receiver to be your primary workhorse needn’t break the bank. Although there is no shortage of expensive radio gear, there are currently a few quality portable shortwave radios available to residents of the United States for affordable prices. Fortunately, at this point in history people living inside the United States are not required to pay a receiver set license fee for shortwave radios as citizens residing elsewhere such as Europe might have to in order to fund public broadcasting. Today the prices of new shortwave radios in the United States range anywhere from around $40 or so for compact handheld receivers to upwards of several thousand dollars for advanced monitoring devices.

Finding the right shortwave receiver for your needs and budget first requires defining what you hope to be able to hear with your radio and how much that you are willing or able to spend. Prices of medium sized portable shortwave radios at present in the United States range anywhere from just over $100 to around $500. E-Radio  Many of these middle of the road shortwave receivers tend to offer a good variety of features and functionality along with a price tag that is bearable for most who are serious about putting their radios to work. Something to consider when budgeting for a shortwave radio is that, while additional equipment is not necessarily a requirement for one to be able to log shortwave broadcasts, having a decent external antenna can make all of the difference in the world for reception. Crafting homebrewed antennas is part of the fun for shortwave radio hobbyists. Provided that you are willing to use your head and do a little soldering yourself, the price of such projects can be determined by the cost of materials or plans. Commercially available antennas come in many different forms and configurations. For less than $100 in today’s prices a tuned dipole or compact active antenna can be attained.

2. Quality: There are many different shortwave receivers on the market. Not all of them were built to last and, in some extreme cases, even work properly right off the shelf. Avoiding being stuck with a lemon by making the effort to do some homework before making a purchase can greatly increase your chances of finding shortwave radio listening to be a rewarding hobby from the start. As most salespeople would agree, it is generally accepted that you get what you pay for. This is quite often the case but is not always true. The quality of a shortwave radio is ultimately dependent on the manufacturer and it stands to reason that there are many business models in existence that attempt to produce maximum financial gain from minimum input.

Talking to other shortwave hobbyists or doing some detective work on your own are good ways to learn about the pros and cons of different shortwave radio models, their reliability, as well as personal experiences with shortwave equipment dealers. Participating in radio related internet forum discussions or going to radio club meetings can be a way to educate yourself. Reviews can be a helpful way to become familiar with many of the available features of various shortwave radio models as well as the quirks or undesirable aspects of particular radio sets. However, it is important to understand that some reviewers might give an opinion regarding a product which is biased because of their own interest in somehow making a profit from your purchase. Therefore, taking in more than one or two reviews as well as talking to more experienced shortwave hobbyists is highly recommended as a means to gauge the quality of a particular shortwave radio set, manufacturer or distributor.

3. Functionality: Aside from the ability for a particular radio to connect to and utilize various different external antennas, perhaps the most important defining aspect of a shortwave radio’s capacity is limited by the frequencies which it can receive. When selecting a shortwave radio it is a good idea to make sure that it is capable of receiving in the different modes where transmissions that you would like to monitor occur. The term “shortwave” has a broad scope and is generally used to refer to high frequency (HF) communications consisting of multiple “bands”, or portions of the radio spectrum. Most commercially available shortwave radios provide access to the frequencies where large commercial shortwave stations transmit public broadcasts. However, some radio monitoring hobbyists like to log aircraft, marine activity, or utilities such as beacons and may require special receivers which include frequency coverage which permits doing so. It is important to note that the definition of shortwave bands can vary and not all shortwave receivers cover the entire HF radio spectrum. Some shortwave radios include coverage of bands where ham radio transmissions occur and many receivers include air traffic bands which are considered to be very high frequency (VHF). Due to the popularity of medium wave (MW) AM and FM radio stations, access to the commonly used bands may be included in the coverage of shortwave receivers.

Most of the real optional bells and whistles incorporated into modern shortwave radios are aimed at tuning methods. A lot of the specialized options related to shortwave tuning deal with being able to pull out or eliminate specific signals. For some time now shortwave radios which utilize digital features have included options of tuning in varying steps such as 1, 9, or 10 kHz. For the most part it is a matter of personal preference whether your shortwave radio has a keypad for digital entry, a dial for tuning, or both. Some high end shortwave receivers may even feature a remote control with both a keypad and a dial. There are radios which offer phase locked loop (PLL) circuitry and others that incorporate digital signal processing (DSP) into tuning in order to improve reception. One feature considered valuable to listeners of shortwave radios who seek out more than just the large commercial or national broadcasters is single sideband (SSB) capability. SSB signals are an efficient way to transmit and receive and are often utilized by smaller broadcast stations. Provided that the frequencies are available, a shortwave radio which features SSB functionality may be used to listen to long distance transmissions from ham radio operators and smaller independent broadcasters, as well as the occasional pirate operator.

Other aspects of functionality worthy of consideration when choosing a shortwave receiver include the type of display, methods of tuning, and ability to store preset frequencies by memory. Most shortwave radios above the very low cost handheld models tend to have a digital display these days. Display may feature a light or offer a utilitarian menu which enables access to the radio’s features.It is not vital to understand the ins and outs all of the additional features available in shortwave radios to find a basic set which is suitable the needs of most beginner hobbyists. By first gaining an understanding what you would like to listen to and then making sure that you will not be limited by your choice of equipment you should be able to ensure that you are satisfied with your purchase.

4. Size: Commonly available shortwave radios for personal use come in sizes ranging from pocket or handheld models to tabletop sets. Handheld shortwave radios can be as small as the size of a wallet which enables portability with ease. Depending on the model, pocket sided to medium sized shortwave receivers are for the most part very well suited for use in a wide range of places. Medium sized shortwave radios can be taken along when traveling as they are easy to pack in luggage and the built in antennas are often sufficient for acceptable reception of transmissions by large international and domestic broadcasters. Medium sized receivers also make for good side table companions in bedrooms and many of them even tend to come with built in alarm clock features.

Larger tabletop shortwave radio sets are typically for stationary use and, although they are probably not the best suited place to set your cup of coffee on, they can be big enough that they can easily collect stacked clutter on their flat surface areas. Despite having adopted the old ham radio terminology of “boat anchor” as a nickname due to their larger size and heft, many modern tabletop shortwave receivers offer all kinds of additional functions and features as well as improved ergonomics when compared to more compact radios. The size of a shortwave radio can affect its functionality due to the omission or inclusion of basic characteristics such as the presence of a built in antenna, external antenna connectibility, or features including frequency coverage. Although there may be a few exceptions, larger tabletop shortwave radios do not typically have built in antennas and are intended for use in environments where listeners have the space required to install a longwire or dipole antenna of some sort or another. Active antennas do make it possible for sophisticated tabletop sets to be utilized in smaller settings and provide an alternative space saving solution but in some cases they can be costly and might not be considered ideal. Many smaller shortwave radios do not have connectors which permit them to be readily interfaced with external antennas requiring plug in type jacks. However, many have used the argument that giving up a few options in a small receiver is a small sacrifice for being able to carry broadcast voices from around the world in the palm of your hand.

5. New or used?: Lets face it, who wouldn’t like to buy a new shortwave radio set if given the choice? However, as the current economic climate might be trying to teach some of us, sometimes being frugal and bargain hunting can serve to lead to an improved quality of life. Even so, from time to time seeking deals that are too good too be true can result in unnecessary hassles when poor quality or irreparable faulty radios are passed on. Some people collect radios as if they were baseball cards. Occasionally extreme radiophiles and avid collectors give in to pleas from family members to make space around the house and cash in on their excesses. Eventually we all pass away and if relatives have no use for the equipment we have collected it ends up in an estate sale. Many avid radio collectors and hobbyist shortwave listeners simply like to wheel and deal. There are plenty of places to find used shortwave radios including internet forums, auctions, established shortwave radio dealers and swap meets such as hamfests.

When considering whether to buy a new or used shortwave radio, the type of warranty offered by the manufacturer or dealer may either add some comfort to the deal or, if non-existent, may increase the amount of risk you are taking. Radio repair shops do exist and they are usually found in conjunction with established dealers or manufacturers, although repair can be costly and, in some cases its availability is dependent on the make of equipment. For many years we have been living in a society that has fostered and encouraged built in obsolescence. In some cases, radio repair is simply not cost effective. Buying a new radio can and should keep you out of repair shops for at least long enough to get settled into shortwave radio listening as a hobby. Taking good care of your equipment and making good choices when purchasing it can help to prolong and ensure that the lifespan of your shortwave radio well exceeds the time it takes to open the box it was shipped in.

 

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The Warnings Were There

While the September 11, 2001 attacks on New York and Washington, D.C., could not be reasonably foreseen until after the fact, despite the existence of credible intelligence, the devastation that a major hurricane like Katrina could cause to New Orleans was known. With better planning, enhanced building codes, building code training and enforcement, an organized evacuation plan, and reasonable funding for levee repairs and reinforcement, the New Orleans damage (at least $31 billion) and death toll (1577) could have been lower. In a way, New Orleans was fortunate that Katrina veered slightly sparing the City a direct hit and had weakened just before making landfall.

Although there can be no certainty on how much damage might have been avoided, the existence and activation of a cohesive mandatory evacuation plan when Hurricane Katrina, EarnWithSocial at the time a dangerous Category 5 storm, was bearing down on the City could have significantly reduced the loss of life. Instead, mandatory evacuations were not carried out when they should have been.

Just prior to the Katrina’s arrival on August 29, 2005 a mandatory evacuation utilizing every available mode of transportation (e.g. buses, cabs, and automobiles) had not been ordered even though there had been ample warning since the National Hurricane Center (NHC) and National Weather Service (NWS) had been issuing bulletins a full two days before the hurricane struck. Instead residents were given the option to leave, to remain in their residences at their own risk or to be sheltered within the city in unsafe areas, most notably The New Orleans Convention Center and the Superdome. Neither was immune to potential destruction as was forewarned.

To compound matters, rescuers were slow to arrive (also forewarned) since resources were not deployed closer to the City as Katrina approached, in preparation for the search, rescue and relief operations that would be needed in its aftermath. As a result, it took four days before much needed necessities (e.g. food, water, clothing, and medicines) and personnel began arriving. Five days after Katrina had struck with winds between 135-145 MPH, people were still stranded on roofs. Accordingly additional lives were lost directly because the initial relief efforts were ineffective and disorganized. At the same time anarchy and chaos gripped the City.

When speaking at a press conference, Homeland Security chief Michael Chertoff stated, “…planners had anticipated that water would rise above the levees containing Lake Pontchartrain, but that the levees would not be breached. We didn’t merely have the overflow. We actually had the break in the wall. And I will tell you that really that perfect storm of combination of catastrophes exceeded the foresight of planners and maybe anybody’s foresight.” He also added, “Nature was unhelpful” in terms of giving sufficient warning.[1]

Actually there were plenty of warnings. Below are the bulletins issued by the National Hurricane Center (NHC) and National Weather Service (NWS), some graphic and detailed about the potential for severe flooding, damage, and loss of life:

HURRICANE KATRINA ADVISORY NUMBER 17
NWS TPC/NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER MIAMI FL
10 AM CDT SAT AUG 27 2005

…CATEGORY THREE KATRINA MOVING WESTWARD IN THE SOUTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO…EXPECTED TO TURN WEST-NORTHWESTWARD AND STRENGTHEN…

AT 10 AM CDT…1500Z…A HURRICANE WATCH IS IN EFFECT FOR THE SOUTHEASTERN COAST OF LOUISIANA EAST OF MORGAN CITY TO THE MOUTH OF THE PEARL RIVER…INCLUDING METROPOLITAN NEW ORLEANS AND LAKE PONCHARTRAIN. A HURRICANE WATCH MEANS THAT HURRICANE CONDITIONS ARE POSSIBLE WITHIN THE WATCH AREA…GENERALLY WITHIN 36 HOURS.

HURRICANE KATRINA ADVISORY NUMBER 21
NWS TPC/NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER MIAMI FL
4 AM CDT SUN AUG 28 2005

…DANGEROUS CATEGORY FOUR HURRICANE KATRINA CONTINUES WEST-NORTHWESTWARD BUT EXPECTED TO TURN NORTHWARD… …NEW TROPICAL STORM WARNINGS ISSUED FOR NORTHERN GULF COAST…

A HURRICANE WARNING IS IN EFFECT FOR THE NORTH CENTRAL GULF COAST FROM MORGAN CITY LOUISIANA EASTWARD TO THE ALABAMA/FLORIDA BORDER…INCLUDING THE CITY OF NEW ORLEANS AND LAKE PONTCHARTRAIN. A HURRICANE WARNING MEANS THAT HURRICANE CONDITIONS ARE EXPECTED WITHIN THE WARNING AREA WITHIN THE NEXT 24 HOURS. PREPARATIONS TO PROTECT LIFE AND PROPERTY SHOULD BE RUSHED TO COMPLETION.

BULLETIN
HURRICANE KATRINA ADVISORY NUMBER 23
NWS TPC/NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER MIAMI FL
10 AM CDT SUN AUG 28 2005

…POTENTIALLY CATASTROPHIC HURRICANE KATRINA…EVEN STRONGER…HEADED FOR THE NORTHERN GULF COAST…

A HURRICANE WARNING IS IN EFFECT FOR THE NORTH CENTRAL GULF COAST FROM MORGAN CITY LOUISIANA EASTWARD TO THE ALABAMA/FLORIDA BORDER…INCLUDING THE CITY OF NEW ORLEANS AND LAKE PONTCHARTRAIN.

URGENT – WEATHER MESSAGE
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE NEW ORLEANS LA
1011 AM CDT SUN AUG 28 2005

…DEVASTATING DAMAGE EXPECTED…

HURRICANE KATRINA…A MOST POWERFUL HURRICANE WITH UNPRECEDENTED STRENGTH…RIVALING THE INTENSITY OF HURRICANE CAMILLE OF 1969.

MOST OF THE AREA WILL BE UNINHABITABLE FOR WEEKS…PERHAPS LONGER. AT LEAST ONE HALF OF WELL CONSTRUCTED HOMES WILL HAVE ROOF AND WALL FAILURE. ALL GABLED ROOFS WILL FAIL…LEAVING THOSE HOMES SEVERELY DAMAGED OR DESTROYED.

THE MAJORITY OF INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS WILL BECOME NON FUNCTIONAL. PARTIAL TO COMPLETE WALL AND ROOF FAILURE IS EXPECTED. ALL WOOD FRAMED LOW RISING APARTMENT BUILDINGS WILL BE DESTROYED. CONCRETE BLOCK LOW RISE APARTMENTS WILL SUSTAIN MAJOR DAMAGE…INCLUDING SOME WALL AND ROOF FAILURE.

HIGH RISE OFFICE AND APARTMENT BUILDINGS WILL SWAY DANGEROUSLY…A FEW TO THE POINT OF TOTAL COLLAPSE. ALL WINDOWS WILL BLOW OUT.

AIRBORNE DEBRIS WILL BE WIDESPREAD…AND MAY INCLUDE HEAVY ITEMS SUCH AS HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES AND EVEN LIGHT VEHICLES. SPORT UTILITY VEHICLES AND LIGHT TRUCKS WILL BE MOVED. THE BLOWN DEBRIS WILL CREATE ADDITIONAL DESTRUCTION. PERSONS…PETS…AND LIVESTOCK EXPOSED TO THE WINDS WILL FACE CERTAIN DEATH IF STRUCK.

POWER OUTAGES WILL LAST FOR WEEKS…AS MOST POWER POLES WILL BE DOWN AND TRANSFORMERS DESTROYED. WATER SHORTAGES WILL MAKE HUMAN SUFFERING INCREDIBLE BY MODERN STANDARDS.

THE VAST MAJORITY OF NATIVE TREES WILL BE SNAPPED OR UPROOTED. ONLY THE HEARTIEST WILL REMAIN STANDING…BUT BE TOTALLY DEFOLIATED. FEW CROPS WILL REMAIN. LIVESTOCK LEFT EXPOSED TO THE WINDS WILL BE KILLED.

AN INLAND HURRICANE WIND WARNING IS ISSUED WHEN SUSTAINED WINDS NEAR HURRICANE FORCE…OR FREQUENT GUSTS AT OR ABOVE HURRICANE FORCE…ARE CERTAIN WITHIN THE NEXT 12 TO 24 HOURS.

ONCE TROPICAL STORM AND HURRICANE FORCE WINDS ONSET…DO NOT VENTURE OUTSIDE!

HURRICANE KATRINA ADVISORY NUMBER 24
NWS TPC/NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER MIAMI FL
4 PM CDT SUN AUG 28 2005

…POTENTIALLY CATASTROPHIC HURRICANE KATRINA HEADED FOR THE NORTHERN GULF COAST…

A HURRICANE WARNING IS IN EFFECT FOR THE NORTH CENTRAL GULF COAST FROM MORGAN CITY LOUISIANA EASTWARD TO THE ALABAMA/FLORIDA BORDER…INCLUDING THE CITY OF NEW ORLEANS AND LAKE PONTCHARTRAIN. PREPARATIONS TO PROTECT LIFE AND PROPERTY SHOULD BE COMPLETED THIS EVENING.

It should be noted that The National Hurricane Center (NHC) describes a “catastrophic hurricane” in the following way:

”Storm surge generally greater than 18 feet above normal. Complete roof failure on many residences and industrial buildings. Some complete building failures with small utility buildings blown over or away. All shrubs, trees, and signs blown down. Complete destruction of mobile homes. Severe and extensive window and door damage. Low-lying escape routes are cut by rising water 3-5 hours before arrival of the center of the hurricane. Major damage to lower floors of all structures located less than 15 ft above sea level and within 500 yards of the shoreline. Massive evacuation of residential areas on low ground within 5-10 miles (8-16 km) of the shoreline may be required.”

However, these were not the only warnings about the threat New Orleans faced from a major hurricane and the catastrophic harm a Category 4 or 5 storm would cause.

Back in November 2004 after New Orleans had averted a close call with Hurricane Ivan, another strong storm, The Natural Hazards Observer asked, “What if Hurricane Ivan Had Not Missed New Orleans?” The answer was startling and accurate:

 

 

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My First Trip to Africa: Sierra Leone, Freetown – Kono

Before we criticize our own Team USA we ought to look at the Herculean efforts of the Evacuation Teams and Volunteers. They have just completed the evacuation of at least 24,000 people in 24-Hours. Not any twenty-four thousand people, we are talking about 24,000 folks who were dehydrated, rowdy, sick and not exactly in the best of physical shape after this long ordeal of 5-days. Think about this for a second. It took nearly 18-hours for the entire storm to pass over, the roof of the Dome Blew off in spots, they were fatigued and sacred. Little water and no bathrooms and that was after only the first 5-6 hours before the storm had even passed them.

The come out to take a look and get fresh air and see the streets are flooded, hear stories of even more devastation than was done. Wonder if they will live or die; wonder if they even have a home left. Do not have communication with loved ones and see smoke in the distance as if the city is burning to the ground or perhaps the roof top water lines? They hear of horrible tales, riots, shooting and wonder of loved ones.

The Mayor of the City screams “help” into the Radio Am station, while rescue efforts get delayed due to power outage on a pitch-black night. The next day the submerging event occurs. They need supplies in to the Super Dome while looters go fishing for themselves, shoot at police as some police join the ad hoc shoppers for some free stuff on a shopping spree dream; take whatever you can carry.

The rescue helicopters have limited fuel and have to fly to get more. They concentrate on drowning people who failed to evacuate first, before delivering supplies to those in the dome and other shelters. Food and supplies are blocked due to the road closures, there is only one way in from the West, but as they approach town the road is submerged into the city. New Orleans is basically an island in a bowl of soup now. The Mighty Superdome is now a damaged fragile lily pad in a see of sewage, rotting bodies and submerged automobiles.

Who should we blame for all this? Well before you start blaming FEMA or the commander in chief, why not blame those who did not head the warnings, continued to build a city under sea level in the middle of a 350-mile levee system which had its last large scale upgrade in 1965? And if that is not good enough for you, why not blame Hurricane Katrina and her Mother “Nature,” think on this.

 

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/67025  3km

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The IoT and the Day the Internet Died, Almost

A little over a week ago, the Internet almost died.

Starting on Thursday, October 20, much of the U.S. and parts of Western Europe experienced a massive outage. Some of the most popular and heavily used websites in the world went silent. Poor Donald Trump couldn’t tweet for a few hours.

And it was all because of cheap webcams and DVD players… perhaps even one of yours.

Making Connections

To understand how this happened, you need to understand how Internet of Things (IoT) devices work.

If you’re reading this, you have an    Newsrooms.ca Internet connection. To make that connection, your computer or smartphone needs to have three things:

A piece of hardware designed to connect to the Internet t   hrough a cable or wirelessly
Software to run that hardware, which contains its unique Internet “IP” address
A way to tell the difference between authorized and unauthorized connections
The last requirement is typically met by a username and password to connect to your Internet service provider. But it’s also possible for other devices to connect remotely to your computer across the Internet – “incoming connections.” Some of those are good (e.g., incoming Skype calls), and some are bad (hackers). Having passwords for IoT devices achieves the same thing – but only if they’re strong passwords.

The tech industry has worked hard to develop common techniques to identify and stop unwanted incoming connections to computers. Operating systems are constantly updated to deal with the latest threat. Specialized companies do nothing but watch for viruses, bots, malware and other dangers and design software to fight them. Guys like me write about how you can maintain good digital hygiene. That’s why we have far fewer virus outbreaks than we used to.

When it comes to Internet connections, IoT hardware has pretty much the same setup. But there are three big differences.

One is that the username and password setup may be hard to alter – it may even be hardwired by the manufacturer, as seems to have been the case with the devices that contributed to the recent Internet outage.

Another is that IoT devices are always on and rarely monitored. Unlike a computer, they could be infected and you’d never know.

Above all, there is no collective effort to monitor and prevent hacking of IoT devices. Nobody is sending out general security updates, like a McAfee or Norton antivirus service. They can’t, since IoT devices are all different. There’s no common language or protocol that could address threats to all IoT devices at once.

Instead, it’s up to the manufacturer of each IoT device to secure the device and to update its “firmware” when threats become known.

We tried that approach with computers… and it didn’t work.

How This Led to Last Week’s Outage

In the recent outage, IoT hardware made by a Chinese manufacturer – including those cheap bundled home-security webcams you see advertised at Home Depot – was hacked by someone using software called Mirai. It searches the Internet looking for IoT gadgets that use default passwords or simple passwords, infects them and then assembles them into a “botnet”- a collection of devices that can be made to do the hacker’s wishes.

In this case, they instructed IoT devices to send “tens of millions” of connection requests to the servers of a U.S. company that provides crucial Internet routing information. Overwhelmed, the company’s servers crashed… and with it, the Web pages of sites like Twitter, Facebook, The New York Times and others.

This was possible because the software running the Chinese IoT hardware used a single hardwired username and password for all of them – which couldn’t be changed by the user. Once the hackers got the username and password, it was easy to program them to do what they did.

Roland Dobbins, principal engineer of Internet security company Arbor Networks, blames this on the failure of manufacturers to work together to develop a common security approach to IoT. Instead, each company pursues its own designs and ignores the PC industry’s painful experience in this respect.

“I’m not concerned about the future; I’m concerned about the past,” he said recently. “If I could wave a magic wand, I would make it so there are no unsecured embedded devices out there. We still have a huge problem; we still have tens of millions of these devices out there.”

Don’t Disconnect From the IoT

Does this mean that positive predictions about the IoT are misplaced?

Not at all.

First, companies like Samsung, which plans to make all its products Internet-connected soon, now have an incentive to develop ways to fight this. Otherwise we won’t buy their products.

Second, consumers aren’t going to stand for a situation like the old Betamax versus VCR wars – competing approaches to a common need. The IoT is a platform, like the Internet itself, and everyone needs to be on the same one. Manufacturers will sit down and come up with common protocols to secure IoT devices, even if they’re kicking and screaming all the way.

Third, the same market forces that produced Norton, McAfee, Kaspersky Lab and all the other security companies in the computer space are going to produce solutions for the IoT. And there will be money to be made investing in those as well as the IoT itself.

In the meantime, here’s my advice. Get IoT devices… but only the top of the line. Avoid cheap mass-produced off-brands. Ask salespeople about security protocols and whether you can set your own username and password easily. If not, walk away.

 

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ナチュラルスキンケア製品を使用する方法と理由

前書き 人間の皮膚は人体の最大の器官です。それは非常に複雑な構造を持っているだけでなく、いくつかの生命維持機能も実行します。 脾臓、胆嚢、虫垂がなくても生きることができ、腎臓や肺が1つしかない場合でも生き残ることができますが、皮膚がなければ生き残ることはできません。結果として、私たちが肌の世話をすることが最も重要です。 天然のスキンケア製品を使用することは、肌に適切な栄養素と建築材料を提供して健康と機能を維持するための良い第一歩です。 私たちの肌は実際に私たちのために何をしていますか? 私たちの皮膚には多くの機能があり、そのほとんどは何かがうまくいかないまで気づいていません。それらが含まれます: 体温の調節; 要素に対する保護; 感覚; 排泄; 免疫; 血液貯蔵と ビタミンDの合成。 これらの機能についてさらに詳しく知りたい場合は、この記事「皮膚の解剖学と生理学」をご覧ください。 要約すると、これらの機能は私たちに周囲の気候環境の認識を提供し、周囲のバクテリアやその他の潜在的に有害なバグから私たちを保護し、触覚を体験し、体から毒素を排除し、血液を蓄え、そして提供することを可能にします私たちの体が太陽の紫外線から私たちの体を保護しながらビタミンDを取得するための手段。 私たちの肌が実行しなければならないこれらの重要な機能を考えると、私たちが肌の世話をし、適切に機能して健康を維持するためのあらゆる機会が与えられていることを確認する必要があるのは当然です。 なぜあなたはナチュラルスキンケア製品を選ぶべきですか? スーパーマーケットやデパートで販売されている多くの市販のスキンケア製品に含まれる潜在的に有毒な成分について消費者に警告するすべてのメディアやニュースの報道があるため、これは答えるのが簡単な質問です。 第一に、一般的に使用されるスキンケア製品の多くは、体が除去するのが難しい人工および/または合成成分を含んでおり、その結果、これらの化学物質を組織に貯蔵する傾向があります。研究によると、これらの物質の多くの蓄積は深刻な健康影響をもたらす可能性があります。 スキンケア製品に使用されている有毒化学物質のいくつかについて詳しく知りたい場合は、「スキンケア製品に含まれる可能性のある有毒成分」の記事をお読みください。それはあなたがあなたのスキンケア製品に何が入っているのか、そして何がそこにあるべきではないのかを特定することができるようにあなたに多くの情報と研究の参考資料を提供します。 全体的に自然なスキンケア製品には、人工または合成成分は含まれていません。また、潜在的に危険であることが示されているパラベン(疑似天然防腐剤)などの単離された濃縮天然物質を含むべきではありません。 安全で効果的なナチュラルスキンケア製品の選び方は? これはそれが本当に難しくなり始めるところです。ご存知のように、いわゆるナチュラルまたはオーガニックのスキンケア製品の多くは、実際にはそのようなものではありません。少量のアロエベラを水に加えても、全体的に自然なスキンケア製品にはなりません。それは「自然」または「有機」でさえあるかもしれません、しかしそれは効果的ではないでしょう、そしてそれ故にあなたのお金の無駄です。 たとえば、効果的なアロエベラ製品を作るには、全体の含有量の少なくとも10%がアロエベラである必要があります。または、アロエベラは、特定の結果を達成するために組み合わされた他のいくつかの活性な天然成分と組み合わせる必要があります。 「オーガニック」という用語は、消費者が誤解されているもう1つの分野です。単一の「有機」成分を追加してから、その製品を「有機」と呼ぶのは、まったく間違っています。あなたは毎日テレビや雑誌でコマーシャルを見ます…「xyz製品は有機これと有機それを含んでいます」…しかしこれらの製品に含まれている他の成分については言及されておらず、その多くは私たちの健康に危険です。 天然のスキンケア製品にはさらに別の問題があります。それは混乱の領域であり、誤解を招く可能性があります。 「自然」とは正確には何であるかを自問してみてください。 「自然」という用語は実際にはどういう意味ですか? 「自然」という言葉は、自然のイメージを呼び起こします。自然のままの環境は、私たちを気持ちよくさせます。健康と幸福感を助長する安全で自然な環境。湧き水、滝、手付かずの湖、ヘルシーなサラダ、熱帯雨林などはすべて、私たちが「自然」、つまり「私たちにとって良い」と感じる画像です。 化粧品業界はこれをやめ、自然という言葉を使って広告に幸福感とこの製品が私たちに良いという考えを浸透させています。残念ながら、1つまたは2つの天然成分は天然スキンケア製品ではありません…それどころか、天然スキンケア製品には天然由来ではない成分が含まれていてはなりません。これは私達に自然なスキンケア製品の別の問題をもたらします
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基本的なガイドとあなたに最適なスキンケア製品を特定する方法

肌のケアを始めるのに若すぎたり、年を取りすぎたりすることは決してありません。実際、スキンケアと保護はあなたの健康、フィットネス、美容体制の重要な部分でなければなりません。お肌のお手入れをすれば、お肌がお世話になります!しかし、市場に出回っているすべてのローション、クリーム、ポーションでは、どの製品が肌に効くのかを知るのは難しいかもしれません。多くの製品は、しわを取り除くか、乾燥肌を癒すと主張し、他の製品は、製品の効果を改善するのに役立つと言う高価な成分を含んでいると主張しています。これは、市場に出回っている基本的なスキンケア製品のガイドと、どの製品が自分に最適かを特定する方法です。 製品を見てください あなたの毎日のスキンケアに役立つかもしれないスキンケア製品のいくつかのタイプがあります。これらには、クレンザー、日焼け止め、保湿剤、アイクリーム、トナー、角質除去剤、レチノイド、ハーブ、スキンケアサプリメントが含まれます。 トナー:スキントナーは、肌に余分なクレンジング特性を提供し、油分、汚れ、化粧を取り除くのに役立ちます。ただし、肌が乾燥している場合は、トナーの使用を避けるか、使用頻度を減らしてください。これらのスキンケア製品にはアルコールやアセトンが含まれていることが多く、乾燥肌や敏感肌を悪化させる可能性があります。 日焼け止め:日焼け止めは私たちの肌のケアと保護に欠かせない製品です。体がビタミンDを合成するために日光へのある程度の露出が必要であることは事実ですが、これを達成するために実際には毎日10〜15分しか必要としません。過度の日光への露出は、皮膚細胞の変化を引き起こし、茶色の斑点、皮膚癌、乾燥肌、早期のしわを発生させる可能性のある損傷を引き起こす可能性があります。肌がきれいか暗いかは関係ありません。太陽にさらされすぎると、両方の肌の色が損傷する可能性があります。毎日少なくともSPF15クリームまたはローションをたっぷりと塗って、日焼け止めを防ぎ、肌の問題を発症するリスクを減らします。多くの保湿剤には、すでに日焼け止めが含まれています。 レチノイド:レチノイドと呼ばれる局所ビタミンAベースの製品は、しわや小じわの出現を減らすことに大きな進歩を遂げました。それらは一時的にしわの領域を「ふっくら」させ、その視認性を低下させるのに役立ちます。 クレンザー:クレンザーは、1日を通して肌に蓄積する汚れ、破片、汚染物質、汗を取り除くのに役立ちます。これらのクレンザーは、液体、泡、または棒状の形で提供されます。 アイクリーム:アイクリームは、目の周りの壊れやすい肌の状態を改善するのに役立ちます。目の周りを潤して保護するのに役立ち、くまを最小限に抑えたり、細い線を一時的に引き締めたりするのにも役立ちます。 角質除去:保湿剤とクレンザーの使用は、表面の死んだ皮膚細胞を剥がすことによって皮膚の外観を改善するのに役立ちます。これらはまた、皮膚の外観を滑らかにし、太陽への過度の露出による変色さえも滑らかにするのに役立つ可能性があります。加齢とともに、皮膚は死んだ皮膚細胞を蓄積し、それが私たちを年をとったように見せ、肌荒れを起こし、しわや小じわが現れます。毎日の角質除去だけでなく、清潔感とみずみずしさを感じることで、お肌は健康で若々しく見えます。 サプリメント:コエンザイムQ10は、心臓病、パーキンソン病、糖尿病、特定の種類の癌などのいくつかの病気の予防と治療に可能性を示している、天然に存在する細胞の抗酸化物質です。また、しわを減らすための多くの保湿製品にも利用されています。 ハーブ:緑茶やその他のハーブの抗酸化物質は、フリーラジカルによる損傷と戦い、全体的な外観を改善するために、局所的に塗布するか、経口摂取することができます。 保湿剤:保湿剤は乾燥肌を落ち着かせ、しわを目立たなくすることができます。クリーム、ローション、オイルの形で提供されます。オイリーベースの保湿剤は、ひどく乾燥した肌に適していますが、クリームやローションは、顔の重さやべたつきを軽減するため、顔に適しています。良い結果を得るには、入浴直後に保湿剤を使用して肌に水分を封じ込めます。 成分ラベルの特定 なぜスキンケア製品にこのような紛らわしいラベリングシステムが付いているのか不思議に思うかもしれません。食品医薬品局は、化粧品およびパーソナルケア製品のラベルの言語を解読するために毎年多くの要求を受け取ります。しかし、FDAは消費者に共感していますが、ラベルを変更して情報を正確に保つ方法は実際にはありません。それは本質的にそれらが何であるかであるため、成分は化学名でリストする必要があります。製品がその商品名で販売されている場合でも、ラベルの付いた名前はその成分を識別するための手がかりをほとんど提供しません。しかし、パーソナルケア製品のラベルの専門用語にもかかわらず、いくつかの有用な情報を収集することは可能です。成分のラベリングは、フォーミュラに含まれる量に基づいて順番にリストする必要があります。消費者は、特定の成分がリストのどこにあるかを確認することで、類似の製品を比較できます。たとえば、敏感肌の場合は、最初の成分としてアルコールが記載されている製品と、アルコールの1つとして記載されている製品を避けたい場合があります。

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A Comparison of England’s Criminal Court System With the United States

Last year, I had the opportunity to travel to London, England to observe their criminal court system for a week. This trip was put together by the California State Bar Association. As a criminal defense attorney practicing in America, it was a wonderful experience to observe three or four different English criminal courts. After several hours of observation, our group had an opportunity to visit with the judge and lawyers product-evaluation from that session. Below find a comparison between the two systems.

1. What standard of proof is required before a formal charge is issued to a citizen?

Very similar to the United States, the English standard for the issuance of a formal charge is “reasonable suspicion” that a crime or criminal offense has occurred.

2. Generally speaking, how is a formal charging document issued?

Again, in a procedure very similar to the United States, the police and/or the Crown’s Prosecution Service are the ones who draw up and issue a formal charging document.

3. Does a defendant have the right to an attorney?

In both countries, yes.

4. When is a defendant advised of their right to an attorney, and at what stage of the proceedings is an attorney available to them?

An English citizen is advised upon their arrest and prior to being questioned by police that they have the right to an attorney. Basically, this procedure is virtually identical to the procedure in the United States as to a “Miranda” warning.

5. Does a defendant in England have the right to examine the prosecution’s case file (reports, witness statements, forensic examination results, etcetera)?

Yes, and well in advance of trial.

6. Does a defendant in England have the right to a jury trial?

Yes, but not as liberally as in the United States. For a first offense, the maximum penalty that an English citizen needs to be facing must be at least six (6) months in prison before they are entitled to a jury trial. For a second offense, at least twelve (12) months in prison. Generally speaking, all misdemeanor and 30-day type offenses (such as misdemeanor DUI, etcetera), does not afford or offer the defendant the right to a jury trial. All of these type offenses are handled as bench trials before the judge.

7. Is a defendant in England presumed innocent during the course of the proceedings?

Yes.

8. What is the general makeup and conduct of a jury trial in England?

Generally, the jury is made up of twelve (12) members; however, during the course of the trial the number of active jurors can actually go down to nine (9) and the case will continue until a verdict is rendered. English law allows a 10-2 or otherwise “super majority” verdict, a unanimous verdict is not required. By contrast, most criminal courts in the United States require a unanimous verdict.

9. Does the defendant have the right to an appeal?

Yes, but only upon an alleged error of law.

Some interesting information about appellate courts in England: Previously, all criminal appeals were referred to a specific subcommittee of the “House of Lords” for a decision. Only recently have specific appellate courts been created to handle criminal appeals. An appellate court does not have the ability to strike down or nullify a law, they can only interpret a law or make a recommendation to the Parliament that a law be rewritten. The highest appellate court in England hears appeals for England, Wales, and Northern Ireland in both civil and criminal matters. Scotland has retained their own appellate court for criminal appeals. The “Privy Council” is the final appellate court available to all British republics (example: Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, etcetera). The “privy council” is made up of the same judges that comprise the appellate courts. The English appellate courts very rarely sit “en banc.” Depending upon the perceived importance of the matter to the general public, panels of either five (5), seven (7) or nine (9) judges will hear oral arguments and decide the case. For the most part it is a panel of three judges who hear and decide the cases. Average oral argument is around eight (8) hours per party.

10. What is the standard of proof required for a conviction in criminal court?

“Sure” is the current standard in England. Formerly it was “beyond a reasonable doubt” (as is the standard in America); but it was recently changed to “sure.”

Some generally interesting points of the English criminal judicial system are:

“Prior bad acts/prior convictions are admissible as proof to the current offense charged (example: an English defendant on trial for shoplifting second offense would have the first shoplifting conviction announced or published to the jury)

The English judiciary embraces the concept of “shared and complete responsibility” among multiple defendants. Similar to the concept in America of “the hand of one is the hand of all.” For the most part, English judges award similar sentences to any and all actors/conspirators and even those with a relatively minor role.

The trial judge charges the jury on the law and the facts with the jury and prior to deliberation. Clearly, this is a major departure and difference with American courts. The English judges charge to the jury as to the facts is supposed to be a well balanced and general summary as to both sides and a review of key testimony in a long trial.

English jurors are individually provided a notebook of exhibits for the trial.

English defendants generally sit together and “in the doc” and not with their attorneys at the table during trial.

All attorneys, judges and clerks of court wear a wig and robe during the proceedings in England.

Trial judges generally withhold their rulings on evidentiary objections until after the attorneys meet and see if they can resolve the objections between themselves. Again, this is a major departure the way objections are handled in the United States. Generally, judges in England rule on evidentiary matters much less frequently than their counterparts in the United States.

Jury selection is all random and neither party is allowed any challenges as to a juror except “for cause”. Basically, in the English court they just “spin the wheel” and pull out the names. Jurors are only excused if there is a direct conflict and/or a very high level of “cause.” English jurors can ask questions at various intervals during the trial when recognized by the court.

An “unwritten” rule is that English employers pay the standard salary to employees while they are out on jury duty.

Mandatory sentencing guidelines are present for most crimes in England, with the judge sentencing a defendant upon a verdict of guilty.

A “solicitor” generally has all of the contact with the client, performs all the legal research and prepares legal memorandums and motions. All trial preparation is generally handled by the “solicitor”. A “barrister” is the attorney who actually appears as lead counsel in court for the client. The “barrister” is hired or retained by the “solicitor” and the “solicitor” must pay the “barrister” for his services regardless of whether or not the client pays the “solicitor.”

In England it is very common for private attorneys to continually switch roles within the system. Again, this is a major departure from American practice. Private solicitors and barristers can be hired on a case-by-case basis by the government to serve as a prosecutor. It is very common for private attorneys in England to serve as a judge for a year or two and then return to private practice as either a solicitor or a barrister.

Finally, at the conclusion of the discovery process in England, both the prosecution and the defense are mandated and required to file a joint “case statement” with the court. This document is presented to the jury and contains all points of agreement and stipulations that are present in the case. The “case statement” also outlines specifically points that are contested between the government and the defense. Neither party is allowed to vary from the agreed upon “case statement” submitted to the court prior to the start of the trial.
South Carolina DUI Lawyer Steve Sumner exclusively handles misdemeanor and felony DUI defense. He is a member the National College for DUI Defense, holds an AV-preeminent rating from Martindale-Hubbell and a “Superb” ranking with Avvo. He represents clients in Greenville, Spartanburg and Anderson counties, South Carolina. You can contact him at http://www.upstatedui.com or 864-235-3834. His office is located at 1088 N. Church Street, Greenville, SC 29601.

 

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Integration 2021

Distribution center administration frameworks support stockroom staff in playing out the cycles needed to deal with the entirety of the major and numerous minor stockroom errands, for example, getting, investigation and acknowledgment, set aside, inward renewal to picking positions, picking, pressing, esteem added administrations, request gathering on the loading bay, documentation, and delivery (stacking onto transporter vehicles). A stockroom the executives framework additionally helps in coordinating and approving each progression, catching and recording all stock development, and status changes to the information document.  ac2wave

A stockroom the executives framework typically addresses the focal unit in the product design of a distribution center. The WMS gets orders from the overlying host framework, generally an ERP framework, deals with these in a data set and, after suitable advancement, supplies them to the associated transport control systems.[1]

This turns out to be clear when you take a gander at the cycles important for web based business: when a client submits a request on a site the data is passed along through the business have PC (generally an ERP framework) to the WMS. All vital strides to deal with this request, pick the arranged things, and so forth, are then prepared inside the WMS. A while later, data is sent back to the business have PC to help monetary exchanges, advance delivery notices to clients, stock administration, and so on

A cutting edge WMS will associate with an assortment of correspondence advancements (radio recurrence), programmed ID innovations (standardized identification, RFID, and so forth), portable PCs, and once in a while mechanized material taking care of (transports and sortation) and capacity gear (merry go rounds, programmed capacity and recovery, etc.).[citation needed]

Types

Distribution center administration frameworks can be independent frameworks, some portion of store network execution suites, or modules of an endeavor asset arranging (ERP) framework. Contingent upon the size and refinement of the association, distribution center administration can be pretty much as basic as transcribed records or accounting pages utilizing programming like Microsoft Excel or Access, just as strength WMS programming frameworks.

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Work 2021

Locks have been developed for more than 2500 years, at first out of wood and later out of metal.[1] Historically, locksmiths would make the whole lock, working for quite a long time hand cutting screws and accomplishing a lot of record work. Lock plans turned out to be fundamentally more convoluted in the eighteenth century, and locksmiths regularly represented considerable authority in fixing or planning locks.  officiallocksmith

After the ascent of modest large scale manufacturing, by far most of locks are fixed by trading of parts or like-for-like substitution or moved up to current large scale manufacturing things. Until all the more as of late, safes and depositories were the special cases for this, and right up ’til the present time huge vaults are hand crafted and worked at extraordinary expense, as the expense of this is lower than the exceptionally restricted degree for large scale manufacturing would permit, and the danger of a duplicate being gotten and crushed as training is removed.[citation needed]

Albeit fitting of keys to supplant lost keys to vehicles and homes and the changing of keys for homes and organizations to keep up security are as yet a significant piece of locksmithing, locksmiths today are fundamentally engaged with the establishment of better lock-sets and the plan, execution and the board of keying and key control frameworks. Most locksmiths additionally do electronic lock adjusting, for example, making keys for transponder-prepared vehicles and the execution and utilization of access control frameworks ensuring people and resources for some enormous institutions.[2]

As far as actual security, a locksmith’s work every now and again includes making an assurance of the degree of hazard to an individual or foundation and afterward suggesting and carrying out proper mixes of gear and arrangements to make “security layers” which surpass the sensible addition to an interloper or aggressor. The more extraordinary security layers are executed, the more the prerequisite for extra abilities and information and instruments to overcome them all. But since each layer comes to a detriment to the client, the use of fitting levels without surpassing sensible expenses to the client is regularly vital and requires a talented and educated locksmith to decide.

Locksmith guideline by country

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Teams 2021

Alongside his colleague Freddy “KRIMZ” Johansson, Kajbjer left LGB and joined fnatic in June.[10][11] There, he discovered prompt achievement, assisting his with joining to a runner up finish at the ESL One Cologne 2014 Major Championship.[12] During one of the games in this competition against Team Dignitas, on the guide Overpass, he acquired broad consideration by disarming the bomb milliseconds before a Molotov could kill him, getting match point. Accordingly, dedicatory spray painting was added on the guide and a weapon skin to Glock-18 (Glock-18 | Sacrifice in CS20 case) was included the game.[13] In the months following, Fnatic saw enormous achievement, and were top picks going into DreamHack Winter 2014, the accompanying Major Championship.[14] After progressing from a runner up finish in their gathering, Fnatic were cultivated against rivals Team LDLC in the quarter-last. During the match olofmeister turned into the focal point of contention when he was helped by his partners into an, unbeknownst to him, unlawful position which permitted his group to rebound from a nine-round deficiency and win the match.[15] After LDLC documented an objection against them which decided that the match must be replayed, Fnatic recorded a counter grumbling, calling attention to that LDLC had utilized a comparative situation in the principal half. The competition coordinator decided that the whole guide ought to be replayed, anyway Fnatic relinquished the game and pulled out from the tournament.[16] The episode got notorious in the CS:GO people group where Kajbjer and the guide Overpass were nicknamed “Boostmeister” and “Olofpass” respectively.[17]

Following the occasion, Olof considered leaving Fnatic and the game all together,[18] yet ended up remaining after an effective run at the ESEA Invite Season 17 Global Finals.[19]

2015  boostcsgo

In February, Fnatic won the IOS Pantamera competition in the wake of beating Titan in the finals.[20] In March, Fnatic won ESL One Katowice 2015, the main Major Championship of the year. In August, Fnatic turned into the primary group to win two sequential Major Championships in succession, as they were delegated bosses of ESL One Cologne 2015.[21] At DreamHack Open Cluj-Napoca 2015, the third Major Championship of the year, Fnatic completed 5-8th.[22]

After Markus “pronax” Wallsten left Fnatic on the 12 November 2015, they enrolled Olof’s long-lasting companion and previous colleague “dennis” Edman.[23][24] The group continued to win each of the three excess competitions of the year: FACEIT DreamHack Winter 2015,[25] Fragbite Masters Season 5,[26] and ESL ESEA Pro League Season II – Finals.[27]

Olofmeister was generally viewed as the best Counter-Strike player of 2015.[5][7]

2016

In January, olofmeister and his group won the SLTV Starseries XIV over Natus Vincere.[28] On 5 March, olofmeister and Fnatic won the IEM Katowice World Championship 2016, beating Luminosity